Significant increase in the levels of cleaved caspase-3 was also observed at the acme of cytopathic effect at 24 h post-infection. In previous studies, CpHV.1 was experimentally reactivated in adult goats by administration of a high dose of dexamethasone (DMS) for several days (1, 7). Moreover, six cysteine residues are conserved by CpHV-1 gD and the other studied alphaherpesviruses. In contrast, all kids (100%) that were separated from the positive herd at 1 week of age remained negative until termination of the experiment at 1 year of age. It causes chronic arthritis in adults and leukoencephalomyelitis, characterized by ataxia, proprioceptive loss and paralysis, in young kids. In adult goats, however, the infection is mild or subclinical, with affected animals showing very mild signs of respiratory distress, vaginitis, balanoposthitis, or, occasionally, abortion (3, 6, 12). It is most likely that the disease was initiated by reactivation of latent virus in at least one of four bucks that served the does, since each was positive for CpHV neutralising antibody when first tested.
A total of 248 serum samples were collected from goats of local flocks. Frequencies of seropositive animals were 36.6% (379/1,034), 25.8% (267/1,034), and 0.6% (6/1,034) for CpHV-1, BoHV-1, and BoHV-2, respectively. After CpHV-1 challenge, the four control goats showed the typical genital lesions, whereas all the vaccinated goats were fully protected against clinical signs. The analysis found cases of alphaherpesviruses infection in each district studied, with different levels of seroprevalence observed within each district (ranging from 0.2% to 31.56% at an individual level and from 9% to 46.2% for herd seroprevalence). Although CpHV-1 infection is usually subclinical in adult goats, it can be responsible for different disorders including respiratory diseases, fever and leukopenia , vulvovaginitis [8,9] and balanoposthitis , and neonatal mortality. The kinetics of SN showed that neutralization activity was mainly associated to the IgG1 subclass and this was also confirmed in naturally infected goats. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed.
Particles 85-113 nm in size with morphology compatible with herpes virus were observed in the nuclei of these cells when examined by electron microscopy. Simultaneous addition of F-latex and CpHV-1 to monolayers of MDBK cells resulted in a significant reduction of CpHV-1 titres 3 days post-infection and this effect was comparable to that induced by acyclovir. The likely presence of CpHV-1 in Corse-du-Sud supported by a high seroprevalence (61.9%) in all investigated flocks extends the number of countries infected with CpHV-1. On the basis of these genomic differences, we propose that DNA restriction endonuclease patterns of the caprine herpesviruses should be designated as prototypic of bovid herpesvirus 6 (BHV-6). The goats were daily examined for clinical evidence of the infection and viral shedding. Reed, L.J., Muench, H.A., 1933. Viral DNA was variably found in all five pairs of sacral ganglia, with a more frequent involvement of the third and fourth pair.
All 3 deer were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) and were negative for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2). Taking into account the close antigenic and genetic relationships between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and CpHV-1, the serological detection was performed by using BoHV-1 glycoproteins B (gB) and E (gE) blocking ELISAs. ULg, Université de Liège – Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Virology and Viral Diseases, BEL. Particles 85-113 nm in size with morphology compatible with herpes virus were observed in the nuclei of these cells when examined by electron microscopy. When applied alone at non-toxic concentrations, ACV had a slight effect on CpHV-1 replication while in combination with MIZ a dose-dependent inhibition of the virus yield was observed with an IC50 of ACV of 28.5 µM. Mailing address: Department of Health and Animal Welfare, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Provinciale per Casamassima km.3, 70010 Valenzano, Bari, Italy. Titration of CpHV-1 in the presence or in the absence of F-latex was performed on monolayers of Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells.