[ 1,Wildlife Disease Research Laboratory, Kerala, India; 2,Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C; 3,Molecular Virology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; 4,Department of Forests and Wildlife Tamil Nadu, India; 5,Department of Animal Husbandry Kerala, India]. Preiksaitis. G. Q12. Figure 1.Map of South India showing the locations of the three elephant cohorts included in this study: Mudumalai National Park; Guruvayur (Guruvayur Sri Krishna Temple); and Kodanad (Kodanad Elephant Orphanage). On cut surface, the renal medullary regions of all lobes were markedly reddened (). Long, E.
“He’s going to help a lot of elephants, I think,” McClure said. Before processing, trunk wash samples were thawed and filtered through gauze to remove sand and feed material, and were then centrifuged at 458 g for 10 minutes. maintaining hydration and actions to prevent DIC and shock, such as i/v plasma administration from EEHV antibody positive adult donors, as a source of both antibodies and platelets, and a broad spectrum antibiotic to combat potential concurrent bacterial infections that might possibly be at the root of triggering the viral replication, predisposing to the infection or arise as a secondary infection. Acute arthritis is usually brought about by overwork or by inappropriate work such as hind-leg walking, head stands, etc. In addition, a large family of five distinctive and highly diverged gammaherpesviruses (elephant gammaherpesvirus 1 [EGHV1] to EGHV5) has also been detected mostly in eye and genital swabs from adult Asian and African elephants (4, 9), but the latter have not yet been associated with any disease conditions. AT- and GC-rich branches are shown, as well as the host species for each virus. b) Schaftenaar,W., Mensink,J.M.C.H., Deboer,A.M., Hildebrandt,T.B., and Fickel,J.
data). Mr. Cortisol is a product of the hyothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which is activated at times of physical or psychological stress (Foley and others 2001, Möstl and Palme 2002, Millspaugh and others 2007). There is no vaccine for the two previously identified elephant herpes viruses. Obviously EEHV disease is a major added threat to the long-term survival of endangered Asian elephant populations everywhere, and new resources and funding to maintain the recent high level of progress are urgently needed. Relevancy of African and Asian Elephants in Zoological Facilities Conservation education is a significant component to accredited zoological facilities. 13737–13746) report that strain-specific mutations in the PA polymerase protein of some H5N1 viruses attenuate the virus in mammalian hosts.
The latter three viruses as well as EEHV7 have also all been detected as quiescent infections in lung nodules from healthy adult African elephants (12). About 25 percent of elephants born in zoos in the United States have died from the disease since 1978. Presenter Khajohnpat Boonprasert, with the Elephant Hospital for The Elephant Conservation Center in Thailand, shared a recent case in which they successfully treated a 2-year-old wild, orphan Asian elephant. Copyright © 2013 Ling et al. To date, scientists have identified eight strains of elephant herpes viruses, five of which are associated with disease and death. When Watoto was alive, either she or Bamboo was locked in solitary confinement. I told Sarah that Rosie is JP’s mom!
Richman, a former pathology resident and National Zoo research associate, who founded the EEHV laboratory. J. Clinical EEHV disease can be very rapid, beginning with oedema of head and thoracic limbs, lethargy, anorexia and reluctance to drink, and progressing to ulceration and cyanosis of the tongue, and internal organ haemorrhage. Intranuclear inclusion bodies in the endothelium of the capillaries in the heart, liver and tongue were observed. Next week, I will submit an order to bring a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) machine to the zoo. The two samples of EEHV3/4 PCR positive products were revealed to be of the EEHV4 strain based on the sequencing of the partial terminase gene. Necropsied spleen and heart tissue showed the highest level and second highest levels of DNA virus copy accumulation, respectively.
In order to establish robust infection in an animal, viruses must navigate through several layers of host defenses, including those that are constitutively present in cells and are known as intrinsic host defense mechanisms. Richman and Richard Montali, one of the zoo’s veterinary pathologists, did a detailed necropsy and noticed swelling, signs of pain, and a strangely purple tongue. You can also try the following: If you’ve typed the page address in the address bar, please make sure that it is spelled correctly. Two of those elephants died between 2000 and 2002 after showing such symptoms, but the third, Chandra, was successfully treated for herpes in 1997, according to Associated Press accounts. I reserved a full day to tour the grounds at Hermann Park and to watch the teams of Houston Zoo animal keepers in action working the wildlife and the crowds. The publisher’s final edited version of this article is available at Am J Vet Res See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.