(81)], as well wide variance, both culturally and individually, with respect to norms about intact vs. Amsterdam, NY: Rodopi (2008). The World Health Organization considers a country-specific threshold equal to three times the country’s per-capita gross domestic product [34]. One study found that negative outcomes associated with circumcision outweighed the benefits [26]. Smith S (2006 October 16) Circumcision may help fight AIDS in Africa, but in the US, the medical argument is iffy. They talked about the foreskin and its benefits over the phone. Tobian and Gray advocate male circumcision (MC) for preventing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI’s).

For example, a participant said, “A lot of my friends prefer a circumcised man to an uncircumcised man because of the hygiene issue.” Male machismo, or chauvinism, difficulty in coping with pain, and a lack of information were seen as the primary barriers to circumcision decision making among men. In addition, three time frames for self-reported behaviors or experiences were included in analyses: ever (i.e., at any point in the participant’s lifetime), during the 12 months before the interview, and the most recent time the participant engaged in the behavior. 2. And we should. Therefore, assuming the lowest reported efficacy for both males and females and discounting to birth year, defunding neonatal circumcision results in a net savings of $301,900 per birth year cohort (Tables 4 and 5). Parenthood is fun. Mermin did not say how that information should be presented.

NEIGHMOND: Over the past few decades, rates of circumcision in the U.S. NEW YORK — U.S. There’s little to no risk of getting or transmitting HIV through oral sex. Additionally, there is a high rate of not selecting a specific answer to the questions. As a result, routine medical circumcision became widespread in England. One of the anti-circumcision lobbyists suggests that the message to African men should be that they should not go for circumcision but should wait at least 10 minutes after sexual intercourse to clean their penises, and then simply clean by wiping using a dry cloth, without water, detergent or other fluid. I oppose this recommendation in the strongest possible way.

Consciousness about circumcision is changing. But starting in the mid 1980s, a small number of groups began voicing their opposition, including the National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers. An estimated 130 million girls and women worldwide have been subjected to some form of FGM, with over 3 million girls at risk of undergoing FGM every year. Those factors included the number of sex partners and condom use. It’s been practiced by Jews and Muslims for thousands of years, but didn’t become common in this country until the 20th century. Male circumcision–reduced infections among females, incorporated in a separate Markov process, included BV, trichomoniasis, HR-HPV, and LR-HPV. The primary objective of the article is to report an assessment of attitudes regarding male circumcision among health care providers to Hispanic clients in Miami, Florida, and provide qualitative data of the attitudes and beliefs surrounding male circumcision that could be used in the formulation of culturally appropriate interventions designed to promote circumcision as part of an HIV prevention strategy in the Hispanic community.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Intactivists gain validity and a measure of mainstream acceptance through their sheer tenacity. That was the case for Leo, who was cut when he was 13. As for the worry that we are putting our newborns through unnecessary torture and risk, the guidelines found that infants have a 0.5 percent chance of complications from the procedure — a number that rises to 9 percent in children ages 1 to 9. Two models were constructed looking at (1) overall knowledge about male circumcision, and (2) knowledge about male circumcision reduction in HIV acquisition. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Risks for genital ulcers, chlamydia, human papillomavirus (HPV), syphilis, and type 2 herpes have been shown to be lower in men who have circumcised penises. Not content with his own monastic life, he also wanted to discourage everybody else from pleasure too, so suggested young girls receive a dab of carbolic acid to the clitoris, while boys have the hoods of their foreskins cut off.

It’s a Wuthering Heights kind of day, the kind where the wind whips around the sides of buildings and under your hood; where the tips of your fingers get stiff around the pencil you’re clutching. Susan Blank, who led the task force that published the new report in Pediatrics, explains the new findings. Prevents penile problems: Circumcision prevents males from obtaining diseases that occur because of/at the foreskin (ex: phimosis) [5]. Circumcision is mostly done in babies and young children but can be done at any age. Public health officials are arguing that circumcision of men should be a key weapon in the fight of HIV/AIDS in Africa.