DETERMINING FACTORS There are several epidemiological factors that help determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in a population. Richman, E. 2010. Is this a recurring event for Chester Zoo’s herd of Asian elephants? Although the vast majority of reports describing EEHV1-associated deaths have originated from institutions holding captive Asian elephants in North America and Europe, EEHV1 is not exclusive to captive elephant populations. Thick sections were cut, mounted on glass slides, and stained with toluidine blue O and examined by light microscopy. Furthermore, among 48 different cases of EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease or viremia that have undergone diagnostic genotyping (5, 11), most of the viruses have been proven to represent genetically distinct strains that appear to fall into two major subgroups that we refer to as EEHV1A and EEHV1B.
Hundreds of elephant deaths in Africa and Asia result from human-elephant conflicts as the human population continues to rapidly expand into traditional elephant habitats. Det finns ett stort behov av säkra, specifika, snabba och användarvänliga diagnostiska metoder. More of 80% of the budget will be used to the actual project, which is the development of the serological test to be able to diagnose infection with EEHV and development of an effective vaccine against EEHV. The strain detected in his blood has not shown to be dangerous to African elephants, which have been found to carry multiple strains of the virus without consequence, Hayward said. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. “So by using degenerate primers we picked up two new EEHVs,” Latimer says. Hardman and others (2011) reported that pregnancy may affect the amount of EEHV virus shed; the pregnant animal in their study had a higher level of virus detected in trunk washes during the third trimester of pregnancy, compared with other stages of the pregnancy, or to the rest of the herd throughout the pregnancy.
But it has been a major financial challenge just to keep the dedicated expertise necessary for this in Erin Latimer’s NEHL diagnostic laboratory, as well as in my molecular genetic strain subtyping group, together from one year to the next, let alone get serious about any more extensive efforts at finding better anti-EEHV drugs or exploring the mechanisms of EEHV pathogenesis. Because these viruses have not yet been propagated in cell culture, obtaining the complete genome sequence of EEHV-1 has been a major challenge. (HZI), to P.D.L. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1- associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations. There are, however, individuals in which the monocytes are on average less abundant and hence this early indicator will be less beneficial in these cases. The bones thus need to be very big and very strong in order to support the animal’s weight and to withstand the activities of daily life. M.
Richman, J.-C. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. EEHV4 has been attributed to two deaths, but as both diagnoses were made postmortem, EEHV4 disease has not yet been observed and recorded clinically. The state will have to address the species conservation also,” said Zachariah. This would allow for early therapeutical interventions and implementation of effective control measures. Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Its genetic study has been restricted to analysis of blood, trunk wash fluid, and tissue samples collected during necropsies.
At least 3 elephants treated with famciclovir have not survived. Nine cases among both orphaned camp and wild Asian elephants were identified by diagnostic PCR. Her head became swollen at the jaw and forehead, and her tongue, normally bubble-gum pink, became pale and speckled by an intricate pattern of red bruises. Two affected young Asian elephants recovered after a 3 to 4 wk course of therapy with the anti-herpesvirus drug famciclovir. For over 10 years we’ve been working in Assam, India to help elephants and humans live alongside one another safely. Behavioural observations made by keepers were also assessed. Bruce Bohmke, deputy director of the Woodland Park Zoo, said he was not sure if zoo officials knew about Chandra’s herpes treatment before the meeting between the bull and Hansa’s mother at the Dickerson Zoo in Springfield, Mo., that led to Hansa’s conception.
This disease primarily affects calves between one and four years of age and has been lethal in at least 80 per cent of all animals with a positive DNA blood test. elephants will provide information that can be used for making recommendations to minimize transmission and prevent infection. The same virus types have also been confirmed to be present in nearly 86 lethal cases in wild, orphan and camp-reared Asian elephant calves within at least six different Asian elephant range countries over the last ten years and thus represent another of the many difficult to control factors threatening the long-term breeding success and survival of the highly threatened Asian elephant worldwide.