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DETERMINING FACTORS There are several epidemiological factors that help determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in a population. Richman, E. 2010. Is this a recurring event for Chester Zoo’s herd of Asian elephants? Although the vast majority of reports describing EEHV1-associated deaths have originated from institutions holding captive Asian elephants in North America and Europe, EEHV1 is not exclusive to captive elephant populations. Thick sections were cut, mounted on glass slides, and stained with toluidine blue O and examined by light microscopy. Furthermore, among 48 different cases of EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease or viremia that have undergone diagnostic genotyping (5, 11), most of the viruses have been proven to represent genetically distinct strains that appear to fall into two major subgroups that we refer to as EEHV1A and EEHV1B.

Hundreds of elephant deaths in Africa and Asia result from human-elephant conflicts as the human population continues to rapidly expand into traditional elephant habitats. Det finns ett stort behov av säkra, specifika, snabba och användarvänliga diagnostiska metoder. More of 80% of the budget will be used to the actual project, which is the development of the serological test to be able to diagnose infection with EEHV and development of an effective vaccine against EEHV. The strain detected in his blood has not shown to be dangerous to African elephants, which have been found to carry multiple strains of the virus without consequence, Hayward said. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. “So by using degenerate primers we picked up two new EEHVs,” Latimer says. Hardman and others (2011) reported that pregnancy may affect the amount of EEHV virus shed; the pregnant animal in their study had a higher level of virus detected in trunk washes during the third trimester of pregnancy, compared with other stages of the pregnancy, or to the rest of the herd throughout the pregnancy.


But it has been a major financial challenge just to keep the dedicated expertise necessary for this in Erin Latimer’s NEHL diagnostic laboratory, as well as in my molecular genetic strain subtyping group, together from one year to the next, let alone get serious about any more extensive efforts at finding better anti-EEHV drugs or exploring the mechanisms of EEHV pathogenesis. Because these viruses have not yet been propagated in cell culture, obtaining the complete genome sequence of EEHV-1 has been a major challenge. (HZI), to P.D.L. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1- associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations. There are, however, individuals in which the monocytes are on average less abundant and hence this early indicator will be less beneficial in these cases. The bones thus need to be very big and very strong in order to support the animal’s weight and to withstand the activities of daily life. M.

Richman, J.-C. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. EEHV4 has been attributed to two deaths, but as both diagnoses were made postmortem, EEHV4 disease has not yet been observed and recorded clinically. The state will have to address the species conservation also,” said Zachariah. This would allow for early therapeutical interventions and implementation of effective control measures. Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. Its genetic study has been restricted to analysis of blood, trunk wash fluid, and tissue samples collected during necropsies.

At least 3 elephants treated with famciclovir have not survived. Nine cases among both orphaned camp and wild Asian elephants were identified by diagnostic PCR. Her head became swollen at the jaw and forehead, and her tongue, normally bubble-gum pink, became pale and speckled by an intricate pattern of red bruises. Two affected young Asian elephants recovered after a 3 to 4 wk course of therapy with the anti-herpesvirus drug famciclovir. For over 10 years we’ve been working in Assam, India to help elephants and humans live alongside one another safely. Behavioural observations made by keepers were also assessed. Bruce Bohmke, deputy director of the Woodland Park Zoo, said he was not sure if zoo officials knew about Chandra’s herpes treatment before the meeting between the bull and Hansa’s mother at the Dickerson Zoo in Springfield, Mo., that led to Hansa’s conception.

This disease primarily affects calves between one and four years of age and has been lethal in at least 80 per cent of all animals with a positive DNA blood test. elephants will provide information that can be used for making recommendations to minimize transmission and prevent infection. The same virus types have also been confirmed to be present in nearly 86 lethal cases in wild, orphan and camp-reared Asian elephant calves within at least six different Asian elephant range countries over the last ten years and thus represent another of the many difficult to control factors threatening the long-term breeding success and survival of the highly threatened Asian elephant worldwide.

Zoo Wild. Wise, R. J. Chester has a large breeding herd of elephants regularly producing calves, which means we regularly have calves at the susceptible weaning age. 2013). The redundant terminase (TER) PCR amplification used the following conditions: 34 cycles of 94°C for 1 minute, 50°C for 1 minute, and 72°C for 1 minute followed by 72°C for 7 minutes, by using Platinum PCR Supermix (Invitrogen). Therefore, EEHV-associated hemorrhagic disease is evidently caused by sporadic infections with multiple different species, subtypes, and strains of EEHVs that are likely to be endogenous to elephants and does not represent either a single chain-of-transmission epidemic or a zoonotic disease.

By supporting accredited zoos, people help make possible the field conservation, research, habitat restoration, reduction of human-elephant conflicts and communitybased initiatives necessary to protect wild populations. In addition, work will be done to produce and test an effective candidate vaccine against EEHV. Scientists believed at the time that the virus was passed from African elephants to Asian elephants at the zoo. The viruses are not limited to captive elephants; they also infect wild herds. The current study used qPCR on trunk wash samples to examine EEHV-1 shedding in an all-female closed herd at a European zoological collection. Obviously EEHV disease is a major added threat to the long-term survival of endangered Asian elephant populations everywhere, and new resources and funding to maintain the recent high level of progress are urgently needed. FOOTNOTES Address correspondence to Paul D.


From at least three days prior to onset of clinical signs, PCV reached plasma levels suggested as therapeutic for treatment of diseases caused by alphaherpesviruses infections in humans [27], but here it had failed to control virus replication as the virus load continued to increase. If there is bleeding, hurry to stanch the flow by pressing a clean sterile cloth or cotton wool on the wound. C. Latimer, J. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations. High levels of EEHV4 shedding from trunk wash secretions of the first viremic elephant correlated with subsequent infection of the second elephant with EEHV4. Climate change and increase in vector borne diseases are also a major concern.

The work will be carried out in collaboration with several European and UK zoos. In two remarkable papers published in this issue of Journal of Virology (8, 9), L. Veterinarians are urged to contact experienced colleagues for the latest treatment recommendations in suspected cases. However, the high level of EEHV1 subtype genetic diversity found among the other Indian strains matches that among over 30 EEHV1 strains that have been evaluated from Europe and North America. It accounts for more than half of all deaths of juvenile elephants in North America, and researchers, working with available tissue samples, estimate that it has killed some 24 elephants since 1983. Similar hemorrhagic lesions with inflammation were evident in the tongue, liver, and large intestine. Find out what we’re doing to understand more about this disease and eradicate it here.

These results suggest that there is no clear relationship between shedding and pregnancy, and that behavioural stressors may be related to an increase in EEHV-1 shedding. She died June 8 after showing a decreased appetite and activity. Up to 24 per cent of Asian elephant calves born in North America and Europe within the past 20 years have been affected by this disease and it has been responsible for nearly 60 per cent of all deaths in monitored Asian elephant calves between eight months and 15 years of age over the past 20 years. elephant population will facilitate decision-making by elephant managers, veterinarians, and regulatory officials regarding movement, treatment, and management of elephants to prevent TB infection. Most, if not all, elephants may become latently infected with different types of EEHV in their lifetimes, therefore it is important for this research to not only identify and categorize the strains of EEHV but understand the differences between types and understand why one type (EEHV1A) is far more dangerous to calves than the others. and Zong et al. The disease syndrome affects predominantly young elephants and has been described in North America [Richman et al., J Wildl Dis 36:1–12, 2000], Europe [Richman et al., Verhandlangsbericht des 39 International Symposium uben Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Wien, 39:17–21, 1999b; Ossent et al., Vet Pathol 27:131–133, 1990], and Israel [Richman et al., Verhandlangsbericht des 39 International Symposium uben Erkrankungen der Zoo und Wildtiere, Wien, 39:17–21, 1999b].

However, less than 6 kb of DNA sequence each from EEHV3, EEHV4, and EEHV7 showed them to be a hugely diverged second major branch with GC-rich characteristics. A proposed tool for the detection of EEHV infection in elephants is the PCR-based screening for EEHV-DNA in whole blood samples. In the last several years, the zoo has had six of its elephants die either at the zoo or at other zoos because of elephant herpes virus, or EHV.