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The 5′ end of the genome has a genome-linked protein (VPg); the 3′ end has a poly (A) tract. Viruses might be transmitted prenatally through placenta from mother to fetus, which caused severe disease. All of the fatal cases were associated with enterovirus 71, and all occurred in children less than 5 years of age. Enteroviruses that are shed from affected individuals are most frequently detected in raw sewage samples during environmental surveillance. Age younger than 3 years was the most significant factor associated with an unfavorable outcome in children (P = .004). In case the disease starts to attack the immune system of the individual and the body could not fight it off properly, viral meningitis will surely occur. Their infection is known to be generally asymptomatic, but they sometimes may cause illnesses such as summer colds, aseptic meningitis (AM), acute myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), etc.

E) they remain latent inside cells in the stomach and intestines. Complete blood count results were within reference values. CD155-transgenic mice are susceptible to poliovirus infection and paralytic disease from injected virus; however, they are not susceptible by the natural oral route of infection. N. Previous studies reported potential transmission of EVs through clams or oysters, drinking water, and recreational hot spring waters but never through contaminated seawater [10–13]. Currently, based on the phylogenetic relationships in multiple genome regions, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses reclassified EVs into 12 species: EV-A to EV-H, EV-J and rhinovirus A, B and C [3]. Few outbreaks of the serious enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which affect the central nervous system (CNS), had been reported in Japan before 2000.


Information about all suspected cases of AM and all lumbar-puncture procedures documented during April-November 1995 was obtained through hospital chart review and by contacting physicians in private practice. As diagnostic and research capabilities have advanced, pathogens able to infect both humans and animals have increasingly been recognized as a major source of emergent human diseases (Jones et al. EVs have traditionally been detected based on virus isolation in cell cultures and subsequently serotyped by serum neutralization test, and were classified into echoviruses (E), coxsackieviruses (CV) group A and B, and polioviruses. Additionally, E-14 was also found a prevalent EV serotype with AFP surveillance in other regions of the world [18, 19, 28]. We report an incident of likely human-to-chimpanzee enterovirus transmission, which raises the question of whether enteroviruses are regularly transmitted between humans, chimpanzees, and other primates. and Sanofi Pasteur, and consults for Crucell NV. Maximum intensity of epidemic process of enterovirus SM, based on data from laboratory examination of patients, was detected in a group of organized pre-school and school age children during summer-autumn period..

Introduction Human enteroviruses (HEVs) belong to the family Picornaviridae and are divided into 4 species: HEV-A, HEV-B, HEV-C, and HEV-D [1]. Their infection is known to be generally asymptomatic, but they sometimes may cause illnesses such as summer colds, aseptic meningitis (AM), acute myocarditis, acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC), hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), etc. 60:677-681. Taking all these factors into account, the National Institute of Public Health encouraged the French EV surveillance network to conduct a systematic analysis of respiratory samples collected from hospitalised patients to evaluate both the level of EV-D68 circulation and its clinical impact. These viruses are highly infectious. Ticks were collected from patients’ counties of residence and examined for the presence of enterovirus nucleic acid. [9] present an epidemiological and virological analysis of an outbreak of concurrent echovirus 30 (E30) and coxsackievirus A1 (CVA1) infections associated with sea swimming among a group of travelers to Mexico in 2004.

The virion RNA is infectious and serves as both the genome and viral messenger RNA. Large outbreaks of HFMD related to CAV 16 and EV 71 have both been documented. Clinical Infectious Diseases 47: 616–623. inoculation, the virus first appeared and increased rapidly in the lower segments, especially at the anterior horn areas, and then spread to the upper segments and brain in the presence of viremia. Enterovirus infections through nosocomial transmission are well documented and involve different serotypes of group A and group B coxsackieviruses and echoviruses (10). Meningitis is almost always a life-threatening condition. Other manifestations include exanthems (rashes), herpangina (vesicular eruption and inflammation of the throat), acute respiratory disease, conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), myopericarditis (inflammation of the heart tissue), and, occasionally, paralytic diseases.

Comparison of the complete VP1 sequences showed that the isolates recovered from the index patient and his mother were closely related to those recovered from the five babies with secondary infections, demonstrating a nosocomial transmission of the virus. All enteroviruses may cause as respiratory tract infections and intestinal infections(enteritis).In addition, any of the enteroviruses may cause serous (i.e.