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Sano T, Fukuda H, Furukawa M, 1985. As of January 2007, KHV was added to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE; www.oie.int) disease list for fish. The scheme on the right describes the assay protocol. Few eosinophilic granulocytes were also observed along the primary lamella. Set III (see data set S1 in the supplemental material) was generated by excluding junctions (which are not considered artifactual) from set II that are not associated with in-frame splicing between predicted protein-coding regions or splicing of 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs) to protein-coding regions. The vast majority of magnetically selected cells were identified as doubly positive for IgM and Pax5 by FACS, which confirms them as an enriched population of B lymphocytes. In addition to the various molecular methods to detect CyHV-3, a monoclonal antibody produced against ORF68 has also been developed to be used for confirming CyHV-3 by immunohistochemistry (Akoi et al.

When the conditions for normal distribution were not met, nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon) were used. Moreover, CyHV-3 RNR and TmpK are also similar to their cellular counterparts, but this similarity lies beyond the scope of this discussion. Introns connecting spliced ORFs are shown as narrow white bars. Openings were created to release the mouth, the opercula, and the eyes. Sample numbers 1 and 2 were determined to be positive for CyHV-3 DNA because the DNA sequences of the bands (indicated by arrows) matched those of CyHV-3 Japanese strain (accession no. Doszpoly A, Benko M, Csaba G, Dan A, Lang M, Harrach B. ↵† Supplemental material for this article may be found at http://aem.asm.org/.


The predicted protein mass is logarithmically indicated in size. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was determined by amplification of 10-fold serial dilutions. The results indicated that the LAMP assay was specific for CyHV-2. Raw fluorescence data was imported into VMir and background values were established for each hybridization based on the median signals obtained from control probes. These findings indicate that the fish HV clade is considerably more divergent overall than the mammalian HV clade, in which 43 genes have been inherited from a common ancestor (8). The cells were incubated at 20 °C for 2 h for viral adsorption to the monolayer. Dikkeboom AL, Radi C, Toohey-Kurth K, et al.

carpio glucokinase gene) as an internal control were quantified using TaqMan real-time PCR, according to Gilad et al. Purification of KHV DNA.Viral DNA for positive controls was extracted from either virions or purified intracellular nucleocapsids as described previously (13). DNA templates from 19 gill samples from NRIA were extracted using a PureGene Cell and Tissue Kit and analyzed by each LAMP and PCR (Table 2). 2013). Some of those cases could be related to an infection with CEV, but this would need testing to confirm. This is why some treatments claim to cure carp pox but these are usually immunostimulants that merely boost the immune system to help it combat infected cells. Comparison of these strains demonstrated that ORF134 is essential neither for CyHV-3 replication in vitro nor for virulence in common carp.

The structural proteome of CyHV-3 was recently characterized by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (10). Determining the host specificity of a viral biological control agent is clearly important, as is an understanding of the pattern of mortality in the target species. Two molecular markers presenting genetic variations were targeted for developing a duplex PCR assay able to distinguish CyHV3-U/I from CyHV3-J while avoiding DNA sequencing. The results showed that KHV is related closely to CyHV-1 and CyHV-2, and that the three cyprinid viruses are related, albeit more distantly, to IcHV-1. Our findings include the identification of the putative capsid triplex protein 1, the predominant tegument protein, and the major antigenic envelope proteins. Verspreiding naar de mens is nooit waargenomen. Using this method, CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 6 of the 10 (60%) types of environmental water tested; the highest concentration of CyHV-3 DNA was 2×10(5) copies liter(-1).

The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. Sequence fragments of the DNA polymerase gene yielded identical nucleic acid sequences among seven KHV isolates. Two viral strains were then reconstituted from the modified plasmid, the FL BAC 136 LUC excised strain and the FL BAC 136 LUC TK revertant strain, including a disrupted and a wild-type thymidine kinase (TK) locus, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the shedding of CyHV-3 from fish with latent infections, under aquaculture conditions. Routine molecular investigations showed the presence of the DNA of an unknown alloherpesvirus in some specimens. There is no current treatment for KHVD. CyHV-3 was originally differentiated from channel catfish virus and cyprinid herpesviruses by polypeptide analysis that revealed novel peptides in purified viral extracts and by restriction analysis of purified DNA extracts.