The development of infectious agents that are resistant to currently available antibiotics has seen a return of mandatory—and controversial—quarantine for public health reasons, such as the recent incarcerations of individuals with drug-resistant TB ( Moszynski 2007 ) and of individuals traveling in Asia during the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (CDC 2003a). In addition, many of the etiologic agents that could potentially be used in biological warfare (e.g., Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis) are zoonotic pathogens (table 1). Infection is typically caused by animal bites or scratches, by exposure to the tissues or secretions of macaques, or by mucosal contact with body fluid or tissue. All of these cases are tragic cases, said Chapman. Nearly one third had been injured by monkeys. Puerto Rico and two states (Minnesota and New Jersey) experienced moderate ILI activity. Along with the flu vaccine, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir are also important weapons during the flu season.
This may not be the complete list of references from this article. NORD recommends that affected individuals seek the advice or counsel of their own personal physicians. In Afghanistan, dogs were responsible for 50% of the reported bites from 2001-2010, according to the CDC, but the second most common source of bites was one not often seen stateside — monkeys. Hantavirus, which is carried by rodents and can cause acute respiratory problems or death, has sickened at least 317 Americans and killed at least 93 since 1996. In 1985 an additional 20 were trapped and removed by permitted trappers, and in 1986 it is believed an additional 59 animals were removed from the property by trappers without permits. Several modes of primate-to-human transmission have been implicated, most involving direct exposure of tissue or fluid from an infected macaque. Spread of the infection to the central nervous system (CNS) causes acute ascending encephalomyelitis.
P. Although virus shedding is more frequent during the mating season (roughly March to June) and when an animal is ill, under stress, or immunosuppressed, there are often no signs of shedding. Except for one instance of person-to-person transmission, however, all cases of B virus infection in humans have occurred in persons exposed to monkeys or monkey tissues. Some individuals afflicted with the condition experience severe outbreaks of painful burning sores in the genital area. The scientific name of the rhesus macaque is Macaca mulatta, the southern pig-tailed macaque is called M. Five days after his injury, he developed herpetiform vesicles at the site of the wound. 3.
It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider. A total of 135 cases of persons injured by NHPs reported during a 14-year period were included, representing an average 10 cases/year (range 4–16 cases/year), with a tendency to increase over time (Figure, panel A). If an injury occurs on late Friday, a weekend or a holiday, how do we store the samples until they are shipped? Retroviruses such as SIV are transmitted by sexual contact, parenteral inoculation or exposure to mucus membranes such as those in the eyes, nose, and mouth. Persons who live or work in or around monkey temples are among those who frequently come into contact with temple monkeys (4). Monkeys can spread rabies, and they can also transmit serious infections such as Ebola and similar viruses, herpes B virus, and tuberculosis. P R Health Sci J.
This packet should outline concerns and offer information for telephone consultation with a knowledgeable physician. Ulcerative skin lesions may occur and the bacterium can affect any organ system with organ-specific symptoms. Similarly, although antiviral prophylaxis is routinely prescribed to persons bitten by rhesus monkeys, there is not a single report of herpes B virus infection in a human outside the laboratory/zoo context, although thousands of persons are likely bitten by macaques in Asia every year (3,4). The Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People goal of eliminating elevated blood lead levels in children by 2020. The latest identified case of B virus occurred in 2008, per the National B Virus Resource Center in Atlanta, GA. 09081) has been approved by the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, Taiwan, in March 2016. · (Form 961) cannot be submitted until the University receives a unique identification number for the employee being added.
For those exposed while working with macaque monkeys, for example in a laboratory or zoo, the occupational healthcare provider should be contacted immediately after cleansing the exposed area. A number of the changes to the current list of select agents and toxins in the August 23 proposed notice represent appropriate updates based upon new taxonomic classification and nomenclature. Nonhuman primate tissue should not be handled without gloves. 73.10, 73.13, 73.16, 73.17 and 73.20 is December 4, 2012.The remaining provisions of the final rule are effective April 3, 2013.