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The wild-type HSV-1 strain F, provided by Beate Sodeik, was propagated on BHK cells and titrated on Vero cells as described previously (95). The aim of this study was to determine whether infection with various MCFVs resulted in antibodies that had cross-reactive neutralizing activity to AlHV-1 and OvHV-2. The Great Rift Valley is a great gorge extending 4,500 miles from the Red Sea Rift beneath the Red Sea (Gulf of Arabia) across modern Ethiopia and Kenya, created by a tectonic plate that is slowly pulling the horn of Africa northeastward, thus exposing fossil evidence of life millions of years before contemporary times. The cornea may become oedematous and blindness, corneal ulceration and hypopyon may result. It consists of two MySQL tables, oligonucleotide information (Oligo data) and PCR and hybridization conditions (Common data), and a PHP query retrieval Common Gateway Interface (CGI). Philadelphia, PA: Saunder; 2007:1245-1248. In: Maxie MG, ed.

Ex vivo bioluminescence detection of alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 infection during malignant catarrhal fever. We show that BILF1 is expressed as a heavily glycosylated membrane protein and that BILF1 is a highly potent GPCR, constitutively signaling through Gαi. Another frequently used simplification is the annotation of a gene start by the ‘longest ORF’ rule (assignment of a gene start to the 5′‐most ATG codon). A multiplex PCR has also been developed which can be used to diagnose the disease in different wild and domestic ruminants in one test only. The epidemiological significance of the presence of virus in the semen and reproductive glands of rams is unknown. Although MCF is usually fatal once clinical signs develop, especially in bison, cattle and certain species of deer, subclinical infection can occur. They include UL20 (99), UL56 (41, 42), and US9 (28).


Using intrinsic and extrinsic methods in concert is therefore a worthwhile approach (3). The established genus Ictalurivirus has been transferred to the family Alloherpesviridae, and the new species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 been added to the family [24]. Wildebeests carry asymptomatically alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), a γ-herpesvirus inducing malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) to several ruminant species (including cattle). The analytical sensitivity of the multiplex PCR, determined by using serial dilutions of a known copy number of each reference plasmid DNA, showed that all probes were able to detect as few as 50 copies of the specific viral DNA per reaction (data not shown). Good animal models for studying HHV-8 infections are not available (4). Clinical appearance and pathology of cattle persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus of different genetic subgroups. Histopathologic Description : Brain (cerebral hemisphere, hippocampus, brain stem and cerebellum) and spinal cord: The most conspicuous lesion in the brain sections is a severe vasculitis affecting predominantly meningeal blood vessels, but also affecting blood vessels that are embedded within deep regions of the brain.

SA-MCF has been reported worldwide, including North and South America [25, 26], Europe [33, 39], the Middle East [3], Asia [4, 9], Africa [5, 24] and New Zealand [10]. There are no definitive therapies or drugs available for most of the HHV induced infections. Yes. One study has reported increases in serum concentrations of both acute phase proteins and cortisol, along with alterations in concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and interferon-gamma) and an increase in the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio, demonstrative of a pro-inflammatory response, following gradual weaning in dairy Holstein calves [7]. BoHV-4 has been isolated throughout the world from healthy cattle, as well as from cattle exhibiting a variety of diseases. Crown Copyright © 2016. In functional assays, A2ΔAlHV-1-infected LGLs were significantly less cytotoxic than wtAlHV-1- and A2revAlHV-1-infected LGLs using rabbit corneal epithelial cells (SIRC) as targets.

The present study is the first to investigate the role of an individual gene of AlHV-1 in MCF pathogenesis. Although the best studied members of this genus are ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) [1],[2] and alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) [1],[3], MCF has also been associated with infection by caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) [4],[5], the MCF virus of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (MCFV-WTD) [6],[7] and alcelaphine herpesvirus-2 (AlHV-2) [8],[9],[10]. This supports the view that AlHV-1 C500 is suitable for the development of a vaccine for wildebeest-associated MCF. The analysis of the L-DNA sequence revealed 70 open reading frames (ORFs), 61 of which showed homology to other herpesviruses. The loxP-flanked BAC cassette was excised from the genome of reconstituted virions by growing them in permissive cells stably expressing Cre recombinase. These results are discussed particularly with respect to the involvement of BHV-3 in malignant catarrhal fever. The concentrations of IFN required to produce a 50% reduction in herpesvirus-produced FFU ranged between 6.4 and 480 IFN units.

The low GC content DNA (L-DNA) region of the genome consists of 130,608 bp with low (46.17%) GC content and marked suppression of CpG dinucleotide frequency. Upon infection, rabbits develop a disease (clinical signs, gross lesions and histopathological lesions) that is undistinguishable to the disease developed by susceptible species such as cattle [3, 7–10, 13].