These results were disappointing, with no differences seen between placebo recipients (ie, patients on HAART alone) and those receiving HAART plus IM 862. The median age of the male study population was 59.0 years (25-75% percentile, 53-63 years). Male participants were grouped according to baseline HIV-1 and HHV-8 antibody detection results. Exposure of KSHV virions to UV irradiation blocked infectivity. However, since we stratified our subjects by HIV status, our estimated prevalence of HHV-8 may be higher than that of the cohort. In this study, despite the small number of samples, the seroprevalence rate among HIV-1—seronegative women (24.1% for at least one antigen) was not significantly different from that previously reported among blood donors from the same region (21.9% for at least one antigen) [7]. Clinical and methodological differences between studies will be assessed in subgroup analyses and meta-regressions (see Statistical analysis section).

This rate was statistically indistinguishable from the rate (14.9%) observed in controls. Patient 4 was living in Italy and his first HHV8 viremia was discovered 5 months after transplantation concomitantly with the appearance of mucosal and lymphadenopathic KS associated with hemophagocytic syndrome. One of the viral miRNAs encoded by KSHV, miR-K12-11, appears to be homologous to cellular miR-155, and thus capable of using its binding sites [29, 30]. Two colonies were sequenced using the ABI BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit and the ABI 373 DNA Sequencer (Applied Biosystems), according to the manufacturer’s specified procedures. KSHV-specific DNA was low or undetectable in most implants 7 d after inoculation, peaked with a mean signal of ∼100 times background at day 14, and then receded to lower levels at days 21 and 28. Adjusted SRs were obtained by fitting a generalized linear model to estimate the risk, in Amerindians versus non-Amerindians, of infection with HHV-8 and other serological markers. Relationship of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) prevalence to age of male Zimbabwean factory workers.

Anthropometric Z scores were calculated using the NUTSTAT anthropometric software package (Epi Info, version 3.2.2; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). A total of 202 HHV‐8 isolates, including the novel sequence generated in the present work (designated “WAGU128” and shown in boldface), were aligned on the basis of a previous amino acid alignment of the same sequences by use of DAMBE (version 4.2.13) and ClustalW, and a 647‐bp alignment was obtained. FaDu, RPMI2650, and SCC15 were obtained from ATCC and cultured according to ATCC instructions. After 25 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 1 min and annealing at 55°C for 2 min, followed by polymerization for 2 min at 72°C, the slides were treated for 5 min with xylenes to remove mineral oil, 5 min in 100% ethanol, and then air dried. Ndlovu, J.R. Nucleotide sequence accession numbers.Names and abbreviations for newly detected herpesviruses were based on the host species name and the genus to which the virus was tentatively assigned (for example, Piliocolobus badius cytomegalovirus, PbadCMV). This fact is little surprising since, in endemic areas, HTLV-1 is mainly transmitted from mother to child by breast feeding, or through infection via contaminated blood (IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 1996).

HHV-8 serology was performed retrospectively, with samples collected in the first visit and after 1 year of follow-up. At 5 days postinduction cells were pelleted, the supernatant was filtered through a 0.45 μm-pore-size filter, and the virions were pelleted at 15,000 rpm for 2 h in an SW28 rotor. Three pools consisting of samples from 10 subjects from each group (4 from the lytic+latent+ subjects per pool group) were tested. D is the recessive allele conferring predisposition to HHV-8 infection. The nested PCR product was a fragment of 138 bp. Among the issues raised by the 2 studies of Hladik and colleagues are the implications for transfusion policy in parts of the world where HHV-8 seroprevalence in adults is high, blood resources are scarce, and transfusion-transmission risk is small relative to community acquisition. Between December 1985 and December 1996, 1218 injection and noninjection drug users were recruited into a prospective cohort study of HIV-1 infection and AIDS in Amsterdam.

Virol. Screening for HHV-8 antibodies in organ donors was reported by 5 (11.4%) of the centers, in contrast to EBV antibody screening, which was implemented by 61.4% of centers (table 1). Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was first described in 1872 by Moritz Kaposi [1, 2]. HHV-8 seroprevalence increased with age among Amerindians (PTrend< .001) and already had high prevalence in childhood but was not sex specific in either population. Although studies (4,7) indicate that HHV8 was disseminated to the European gay communities from the United States or from KS-endemic regions, such as Africa, in conjunction with the introduction of HIV, it is not known whether HHV8 was already prevalent in the gay communities before the HIV epidemic.