Human enteroviruses(HEVs) are comprised of the polioviruses(PV), coxsackieviruses A(CVA), coxsackieviruse! In recent years, human studies using post-infection sera obtained from children have detected antigenic variations among different EV71 strains. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, developed for the polio eradication program, can obtain nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) isolates as a side benefit. In galectin-3 null cells, the released and intracellular EV71 viral loads were suppressed after 24 h of infection, and cell death rates were significantly lower, while cell proliferation remained unaltered. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina, along with coxsackievirus A (CVA) types such as CVA10 and CVA16 (1, 10). In a cohort of 200 newborns, 55% of cord blood samples contained EV71 neutralizing antibodies and these decayed to undetectable levels by 6 months of age in 98% of infants. Human parechoviruses (HPeVs), members of the Parechovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family, are genetically classified into six types.

By comparison between HFMD cases and healthy controls, we found that EV71, CVA16, and CVA10 serotypes were more frequently related to HFMD. We conducted genetic and antigenic analysis of the EV71 isolates and found that 94% of them were genotype C4a related to two lineages circulating in China and 6% were genotype C5 which have circulated in Vietnam since 2003. In Taiwan, nationwide EV71 epidemics with different predominant genotypes have occurred cyclically since 1998. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis must be differentiated from herpesvirus infections and herpangina. Real-time RT-PCR is the technique of choice for the rapid diagnosis of EV-A71 infection and several systems have been developed to detect circulating strains. EV71 infection is initiated by the attachment of the virion to the target cell surface. Epididymitis was diagnosed by ultrasound examination.

The reason for distinct epidemiological patterns of EV71 infection in Europe and Asia and the risk of EV71 epidemic in Europe and Russia remain unknown. The infections were confirmed serologically, although detection of the viral genome in cerebrospinal fluid was unsuccessful. Epididymitis was diagnosed by ultrasound examination. We attempted virus culture for 2,916 samples from 628 of 725 children with HFMD studied over a 3 1/2-year period, which included two large outbreaks. Despite tremendous strides in the effort to eradicate polio through vaccination, challenges remain, including the potential for transmission of neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses which have genetically reverted from live-attenuated, oral poliovirus vaccine virus. Viral culture and a molecular biology-based assay were compared by directly using clinical specimens. Structural studies were initiated in light of the information available on the cellular receptors for this virus and to assist in the design of antiviral capsid-binding compounds for the CVBs.

The lesions of hand, foot, and mouth disease usually regress in two to three weeks, and complications are rare. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2009, a total of 4,664 children with enterovirus infections, based on throat virus culture, were treated in Chang Gung Children’s hospital. METHODS: Overall 228 children in a public kindergarten were enrolled during two academic years, 2006 and 2007, in Taipei, Taiwan and we measured their EV71 neutralizing antibody. The weekly sex- and age-specific numbers of cases in the sentinel medical institutions in the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases in Japan in 2002-2005 were used. Enteroviruses are divided into two classes, polioviruses and nonpolioviruses. However, clinical and genetic characterization of EV71 in the northeastern region of China is scarce.

The most common genotypes in our study all belonged to species A, in which EV71 occupied the predominant position with the highest detection rate of 63.8%. All swab specimens were kept frozen at -20°C until tested and all cerebrospinal fluids were frozen at -80°C until tested. In this study, we evaluated the long-term immunogenicity and safety of this EV71vac in a non-human primate model. In this study, we found that no significant relationship was exhibited between neurovirulence and genotype or subtype, except subtypes B1 and B2, which is consistent with the previous study [21], although Ooi MH observed that children with B4 genotype were less likely to have CNS infection than those with other genotypes [22]. The nucleic acid of specimens which were identified with non-EV71, non-CA16 was tested by nested PCR and analyzed by VP1 sequencing. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. Commonly used rodent models including mouse or rat models are not suitable for vaccine evaluation because the rodents are resistant to EV71 infection after they reach the age of 6 days.