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MORPHOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS:  Cerebrum: Encephalitis, histiocytic, multifocal and peri­vascular, moderate, with multinucleated giant cells, Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), nonhuman primate. Terms used to describe HLH and related syndromes have evolved since the original patient was described as having “familial hemophagocytic reticulosis” in 1952. MR imaging may also be normal. A recent study claims that the brain damaged in these types of encephalitis is caused by the immune system, which overreacts rather than the amoeba itself. CASE IV studied three modalities -vibration detection threshold (VDT), cold detection threshold (CDT) and heat pain (HP). Indian J Radiol Imaging [serial online] 2006 [cited 2017 Feb 20];16:705-10. We propose that the patient’s neurologic disease is secondary to immune-mediated central nervous system vasculitis, possibly as an initial manifestation of mixed connective tissue disease.

As mentioned, the list of potential etiologies for chronic meningitis is broad and includes infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic processes. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed contrast material enhancement on bilateral temporal lobes. The diagnosis, moreover, cannot be proved without histologic confirmation. 2012, Article ID 849812, 4 pages, 2012. N. In one child, HSV-1 infection was initially suspected and was confirmed by PCR. Granulomas have hitherto not been described in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome.

His history was significant for herpes meningitis at age 4 months. pathological, mouth represents a transition between the gastrointestinal tract and skin, which means that many gastrointestinal and skin conditions can cause the mouth. He endorsed occasional alcohol but no smoking or illicit drug usage. His history was significant for herpes meningitis at age 4 months. Antiviral drugs (acyclovir) may be helpful in shortening the course of viral meningitis, and antifungal medications are available as well. A differential diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and multifocal infiltrative glioma was entertained. He later developed infantile spasms and ultimately a mixed seizure disorder.


He endorsed occasional alcohol but no smoking or illicit drug usage. 1–62. The patient reported a 2 weeks history of headache, nausea, and vomiting was accompanied by photophobia. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. 13.6 Histology of PML. Clumps of eosinophilic inclusion material may also be visible in the cytoplasm. MR scan of the brain showed a focal abnormality in the left temporal lobe (figure 1).

3 It typically follows a minor infection with a latency period of 2—30 days and is thought to be immune-mediated. She returned 10 days later with intermittent confusion and word-finding difficulty. Cutaneous and systemic granulomas have also been observed in patients with cartilage hair hypoplasia (unpublished observation), ataxia-telangiectasia, etc. Despite profound cognitive impairment at their clinical nadir, both patients recovered fully. Additional studies testing for other viruses or inherited genetic mutations are warranted to gain insight into the etiologies of NME, NLE, and GME. He initially presented 4 months prior with nonspecific neurological complaints and was found to have a homogenously enhancing and enlarged pituitary, which was biopsy proven to be GH. A 29-year-old male initially presented to an otolaryngologist’s office for evaluation of the acute onset of left-sided hearing loss.

His past medical history was significant only for obesity with a body mass index 34, hypertension, and presumptive shingles on his left flank treated with valacyclovir, although no exanthema had ever appeared. A 56-year-old Hispanic man with chronic hepatitis C was found to have a sodium of 117 mmol/L and a temperature of 39.1°C when presenting for alcohol detoxification. A lumbar puncture showed acellular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with a slightly increased protein concentration. A 51-year-old white male who had received a renal transplant 3 months earlier presented with a 3-day history of left-sided facial twitching. Data Sources. Antimicrobial therapy with flucytosine, pentamidine, fluconazole, sulfadiazine, and a macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin or clarithromycin) was initiated. Diagnosis and management of encephalitis is challenging in immunocompromised individuals, in part because of atypical clinical presentations and the presence of uncommon or novel infectious agents.

Primary central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is an idiopathic inflammatory process that selectively affects CNS vasculature without a systemic inflammatory response, and causes luminal obstruction with resultant ischemia of recipient tissue. Amyloid-beta related angiitis (ABRA) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare disorder with overlapping features of primary angiitis of the CNS and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Importance Brain biopsy specimens that exhibit encephalitis without specific histopathologic features pose a diagnostic challenge to neuropathologists and neurologists. Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced vasculopathy is an uncommon cause of stroke in a young immunocompetent host. Section Editor: Dr. Meningoencephalitis caused by the ameba Balamuthia mandrillaris is a recently recognized, and nearly always fatal, infection of the brain in mammals, including humans (3, 10, 13-15). Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that can cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE).

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Salvarani C, Cantini F, Boiardi L, et al.