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“:” means that conserved substitutions have been observed. No anterograde-moving particles and only rare retrograde-moving particles are seen at any time after infection with PRV 765. Tabulation of significantly changed proteins in axons 1 h after infection. Since BamHI fragment 13 is located in the inverted repeat regions, the probe also reacted with BamHI fragment 8′, which was used as an internal standard for quantification, and corresponding counts were set as 100%. Thus, infectious virus particles spread into compartment N—in the anterograde direction—exclusively through axons emanating from neuronal cell bodies that contact PK15 cells. PLoS Pathog. 2A).

(B) Cell surface expression measured by CELISA. Another criterion of specificity for viral inhibitors of host proteins involved in key antiviral pathways is the demonstration that recovery of virulence occurs only in the absence of the particular host protein. Sood V, Brickner JH2 (2014) Nuclear pore interactions with the genome. SK-N-SH neurons were infected with either VP26/GFP or wild-type HSV strain F using 5 PFU/cell, and the combined cells and cell culture supernatants were collected at 2, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h. At present it is unknown if the hyperphosphorylated form of HDAC2 induced after infection with US3 null PRV is identical to what is found following expression of PRV US3 kinase activity in transformed cells. The construct names begin with “QF.” For all constructs, the native signal sequence (dashed box) was replaced by an exogenous signal sequence and an N-terminal FLAG tag. Exocytosis could be differentiated from endocytotic events by the lack of a clathrin coat around the vesicle membrane (Fig.


When newly infected cells were stained for ORF61 and PML at 60 or 90 min, almost all ORF61 punctae were associated with PML punctae (Fig. L., Nazerian, K., Purchase, H. 3B). p-STAT1 is a well-characterized transcription factor, and its role in neurons is essential for protection against HSV-1 infection (27). The representative frame (Figure 4B) from Supplemental Movie 6 depicts a time after virions have deposited the fluorescent capsid into the cytoplasm. Alternatively, BLCL were nucleofected with the vectors pEGFP-N1/HSV-1:ICP4945–1054 (encoding HSV-1 ICP4 residues 945–1054), pEGFP-N1/HSV-2:ICP4972–1082 (encoding HSV2 ICP4 residues 972–1082), or pEGFP-N1/CTRL (no insert) as negative control. In the subsequent pop-up window, edit the text to reflect the imaging parameters that are important.

Some of the Influenza A isolates (i.e. Single optical sections were captured using a Nikon Optiphot-2 microscope equipped with a Bio-Rad Laboratories MRC600 scan head. Figure 2B corresponds to Movie S1, and represents a maximum difference projection over time to highlight areas where gM-pHluorin intensity increases rapidly. To analyze whether IFNalpha is able to induce such a stably suppressed state of alphaherpesvirus infection, we analyzed whether or not withdrawal of IFNalpha at 5dpi resulted in re-expression of late viral antigens in TG neurons. A mechanism by which LAT-encoded miRNA regulates apoptosis is targeting of transforming growth factor beta, a potent inducer of apoptosis [23, 24]. In agreement with these findings, Solexa/Illumina deep sequencing of small RNAs derived from TG recovered from rhesus macaques latently infected with simian varicella virus (SVV), the primate equivalent of VZV, yielded 1,420,064 usable reads, but, again, did not yield any small RNAs of SVV origin (J. Mice that were reluctant to move, were recumbent, or lost more than 20% of their body weight relative to their maximum weight were euthanized by isoflurane inhalation.

Specific binding was detected with Envision horseradish peroxidase-labeled anti-rabbit IgG polymer (Dako) and visualized using a Histofine diaminobenzidine substrate kit (Nichirei Biosciences, Tokyo, Japan). Briefly, neurons were cultured on Delta TPG dishes for approximately 2 to 3 weeks prior to any experiment. Us3 kinase activity is required for disruption of PML-NBs.To investigate the requirement for Us3 enzymatic activity in the disruption of PML-NBs, we utilized two different kinase-dead (KD) versions of HSV-2 Us3, one in which lysine 220 is changed to methionine (KD/K220M) and another in which aspartic acid 305 is changed to alanine (KD/D305A). Under both of these treatments, we noted a small but statistically significant increase in mitochondrial motility compared to untreated (9.3 ± 0.9% for EGTA and 7.6 ± 0.7% for CdCl2). Agarose plugs were placed into the wells containing a 1% PFGE-certified agarose (Bio-Rad) gel in 0.5× TBE (45 mM Tris base, 45 mM boric acid, 1 mM EDTA [pH 8]). In vitro, FeHV-1 replicates only in cells of feline origin. (A) N-compartment axons were infected with either PRV 180 at an MOI of 1 (control; top row of photographs) or together with UV-inactivated Be at an MOI of 100 (bottom row of photographs).

wrote the paper. (B, D, and F) Relative fluorescence (f/f0) ensemble averages of gM-pHluorin (top, green line), cyan capsid (top, cyan line), and indicated Rab protein (bottom, red line) over a 60-s time course. (A, C, E, G, and I) Still images at the moment of exocytosis show colocalization (yellow arrowheads) or lack of colocalization (green arrowheads) with the indicated proteins.